Tropical Medicine Mission Index of Diseases About Tropical Medicine Tropical Medicine Home Page Tropical Medicine Staff

Next Page

Chapter 26

Filariasis and Elephantiasis

Bibliography

Lymphatic Filariasis

Amaral F, Dreyer G, Figueredo-Silva J, et al: Live adult worms detected by ultrasonography in human bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50:753-757, 1994

Cahill KM, Kaiser RL: Lymphography in bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 58:356-362, 1964

Cao W, et al: Success against lymphatic filariasis. World Health Forum 18:17-20, 1997

Chartres JC, Cockshott WP: Radiological aspects of some parasitic diseases. In: Middlemiss H (ed) Tropical Radiology. Intercontinental Medical Book Corp., New York, 1961

Christopherson JB: Radioscopical diagnosis of filariasis. Br Med J 1:808, 1929

Dreyer G, Amaral F, Noröes J, et al: Ultrasonographic evidence for stability of adult worm location in bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88:558, 1994

Dreyer G, Amaral F, Noröes J, et al: A new tool to assess the anticidal efficacy in vivo of antifilarial drugs for bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89:225-226, 1995

Dreyer G, Brandao A, Amaral F, et al: Detection by ultrasound of living adult Wuchereria bancrofti in the female breast. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 91:95-96, 1996

Dreyer G, Noröes J, Rocha A, et al: Detection of living adult Wuchereria bancrofti in a patient with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Braz J Med Biol Res 29:1005-1008, 1996

Freedman DO, de Almeida Filho PJ, Besh S, et al: Lymphoscintigraphic analysis of lymphatic abnormalities in symptomatic and asymptomatic human filariasis. J Infect Dis 170:927-933, 1994

Grove DI: A History of Human Helminthology. CAB International CH, London, 1990, 23:597-640

Hunter GW II, Warren VG: Studies on filariasis. VI: observations on the reversal of microfilarial periodicity in a case of filariasis bancrofti. J Parasitol 36:164-168, 1950

Kazura JW, Connor DH: Bancroftian filariasis. In: Connor DH (ed) The Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1327-1338

Kean BH, Mott KE, Russell AJ: Tropical Medicine and Parasitology: Classic Investigations, vol 2. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1991, pp 374-412, 444-457

Marty AM, Andersen EM: Wuchereria and Brugia. In: Doerr, W Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 920-927

McMahan JE, Simonsen PE: Filariasis. In: Cook GC (ed) Manson's Tropical Diseases, 20th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996, pp 1321-1368

Michael P: Filariasis among Navy and Marine personnel. Report on laboratory investigations. US Navy Med Bull 42:1059-1074, 1974

Montangerand Y, et al: Lymphographic aspects of filarian adenopathy. J Radiol Electrol Med Nucl 50:135-142, 1969

Noroes J, Addiss D, Amaral F, et al: Occurrence of living adult Wuchereria bancrofti in the scrotal area of men with microfilaremia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90:55-56, 1996

O'Connor FW: The etiology of the disease syndrome in Wuchereria bancrofti infestations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 26:13-33, 1932

O'Connor FW et al: Roentgen demonstration of calcified filaria bancrofti in human tissues. Am J Roentgenol 23:494-502, 1930

Omar MS: Bancroftian filariasis among S.E. Asian expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. Trop Med Int Health 2:155-160, 1996

Spencer J: Some clinical aspects of bancroftian filariasis in the Lango District of Uganda. J Trop Med Hyg 65:256-259, 1962

Suneja SK, et al: Mammographic calcification due to filarial disease. Trop Doc 20:143-144, 1990

Tan TJ, Kosin E, Tan TH: Lymphographic abnormalities in patients with Brugia malayi filariasis and "idiopathic tropical eosinophilia". Lymphology 18:169-172, 1985

Wang PY, et al: A ten year observation of experimental infection of periodic Brugia malayi in man. J Trop Med Hyg 97:269-270, 1994

Wartman WB: Filariasis in American armed forces in World War II. Medicine 26:334-394, 1947

Wijers DJB, McMahon JE: Early signs and symptoms of bancroftian filariasis in males at the East African Coast. East Afr Med J 53:57-63, 1976

Witte MH, Jamal S, Williams WH, et al: Lymphatic abnormalities in human filariasis as depicted by lymphangioscintigraphy. Arch Intern Med 153:737-744, 1993

World Health Organization: Lymphatic filariasis: the disease and its control. Fifth report of the W.H.O. Expert Committee on Filariasis. WHO Tech Rep Ser 821-871, 1992

Yamey G: Global plan to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Br Med J 320:7230-7269, 2000

Onchocerciasis

Browne SG: The role of Onchocerca volvulus in lymphadenopathy and associated conditions. Cent Afr J Med 6:302, 1960

Browne SG: The localization of onchoceriomata. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 55:258-259, 1961

Cheke RA, et al: Seasoned variations in onchocerciasis transmission by Simulium squamosum at perennial breeding sites in Togo. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:67-71, 1992

Cherry JKT: Adenolymphocele and elephantiasis in onchocerciasis. East Afr Med J 36:224, 1959

Darge K, et al: Evaluation of ultrasonography for the detection of drug-induced changes in onchocercal nodules. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51:800-808, 1994

Edungbola LF, Asaolu SO: Parasitological survey of onchocerciasis (river blindness) in Babana district, Kwara State, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33:1147-1154, 1984

Gemada EI, Dipeo 00: Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and urinary schistosomiasis and biting insects in an area of endemic onchocerciasis in Benue State in Nigeria. Int J Zoon 10:53-58, 1983

Grove DI: A History of Human Helminthology. CAB International CH, London, 1990, 23:597-640

Gruntzig J, et al: Lymphographic and morphological studies of the conjunctiva in onchocerciasis patients in Liberia (German). Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 182:304-308, 1983

Homeida MA, et al: The detection of onchocercal nodules by ultrasound technique. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80:570-571, 1986

Leichsenring M, et al: Ultrasonographical investigations of onchocerciasis in Liberia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43:380-385, 1990

Marty AM, Andersen EM: Onchocerca. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 938-946

Ndyomugyenyi R: Onchocerciasis control in Uganda. World Health Forum 19:192-195, 1998

O'Neill J: On the presence of a filaria in "craw craw". Lancet I:265-266, 1875

Ottensen EA: Immunological aspects of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in humans. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 8 (suppl):9-18, 1984

Poltera AA, et al: Detection of skin nodules in onchoceriasis by ultrasound scans (letter). Lancet I:505, 1987

Poltera AA, et al: The use of an ophthalmologic ultrasound scanner in human onchocercal skin nodules for non-invasive sequential assessment during a macrofilaricidal trial with amocarzine in Guatemala. The first experiences. Trop Med Parasitol 42:303-307, 1991

Samba EM: The onchocerciasis control program in West Africa. An example of effective public health management. (Public Health in Action, No. 1) World Health Organization, Geneva, 1994

Siddiqui MA, al-Khawajah MM: The black disease of Arabia, Sowda-onchocerciasis. New findings. Int J Dermatol 30: 130-133, 1991

Studeman K, et al: Onchocerciasis. In: Connor DH (ed) The Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1505-1526

WHO: Onchocerciasis control-success and new targets. World Health Forum 15:291 and 293-294,1994

Loiasis

Bouvet JP, et al: Microfilarial poliarthritis in a massive Loa loa infestation. A case report. Acta Trop (Basel) 34:281-284, 1977

Britton CA, et al: Mammographic appearance of loiasis. AJR 159:51-52, 1992

Carme B, et al: Clinical and biological study of Loa loa filariasis in Congolese. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:331-337, 1989

Carme B, et al: Calcification of the breast probably due to Loa loa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42:65-66, 1990

Chartres JC, Cockshott P: Radiological aspects of some parasitic diseases. In: Middlemiss H (ed) Tropical Radiology. Intercontinental Medical Book Corp, New York, 1961, pp 123-127

Connor DH, et al: Loiasis. In: Binford CH, Connor DH (eds) Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C., 1976, pp 356-359

Greig EDW: Notes on cases of calabar swelling with radiological observations. J Trop Med Hyg 43:19-21, 1940

Hautekeete ML, et al: Presence of Loa loa microfilariae in ascitic fluid. J Infect Dis 160:559-560, 1989

Hulin C, et al: Pulmonary involvement with a favorable course during Loa loa filariasis (in French). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 87:248-250, 1994

Katner H, et al: Loiasis and renal failure. Sth Med J 77:907-908, 1984

Klion AD, et al: Pulmonary involvement in loiasis. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:961-963, 1992

Marty AM, Andersen EM: Loa loa. In: Doerr, W Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 934-938

Negesse Y, et al: Loiasis: "Calabar" swellings and involvement of deep organs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:537-546, 1985

Novak R: Calcifications in the breast in Filaria loa infection. Arch Radiol 30:507-508, 1989

Nutman TB, et al: Loa loa infection in temporary residents of endemic regions. Recognition of a hyper responsive syndrome with characteristic differences in clinical presentation. J Infect Dis 154:10-18, 1986

Osuntokun O, Olurin 0: Filarial worm (Loa loa) in the anterior chamber. Report of two cases. Br J Ophthalmol 59: 166-167, 1975

Pinto D, Connor DH: Loiasis. In: Connor DH (ed) Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1475-1482

Roussel J, et al: Aseptic knee effusion with Loa loa microfilariae in the articular fluid. Acta Cytol 33:281-283, 1989

Samuel E: Roentgenology of parasitic calcifications. Am J Roentgenol 63:512-515, 1950

Williams i: Calcifications in loiasis. J Fac Radiol Lond 6:142-144, 1954

Wilms G, et al: Calcified Loa loa infestations. J Belge Radiol 66:133-136, 1983

Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia

Buckley JJC: Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in relation to filarial infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 52:335-336, 1958

Cockshott WP: Pulmonary eosinophilia. In: Schinz HR (ed) Roentgen diagnosis, 2nd edn. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1969, pp 642-643

Danaraj TJ: Etiology and pathology of eosinophilic lung. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:26-32, 1966

Dreyer G, Noröes J, Rocha A, et al: Detection of living adult Wuchereria bancrofti in a patient with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Braz J Med Biol Res 29:1005-1008, 1996

Durieu J, et al: Eosinophilic lung disease caused by filariasis. Apropos of a case (in French). Rev Pneumol Clin 47:98-102, 1991

Frimodt-Möller C, Barton RM: Pseudo-tuberculous condition associated with eosinophilia. Indian Med Gaz 75:607-613, 1940

Gelpi HK, Mustafa A: Seasonal pneumonitis with eosinophilia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 16:646-657, 1967

Herlinger H: Pulmonary changes in tropical eosinophilia. Br J Radiol 36:889-901, 1963

Joe LK: Occult filariasis: its relationship with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 11:646-652, 1982

Khoo FY, et al: The roentgenographic appearance of eosinophilic lung; tropical eosinophilia. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 83:251-259, 1959

Neva FA, Ottesen EA: Tropical (filarial) eosinophilia. N Engl J Med 298:1129-1131, 1978

Spry CJ, Kumaraswami V: Tropical eosinophilia (Review). Semin Hematol 19:107-115, 1986

Tan TJ: Lymphographic abnormalities in patients with Brugia malayi filariasis and "idiopathic" tropical eosinophilia. Lymphology 18:169-172, 1985

Uduadua FE: Tropical eosinophilia. Dis Chest 52:531-538, 1967

Webb JKG, et al: Tropical eosinophilia: demonstration of microfilariae in the lung, liver and lymph nodes. Lancet I :835-842, 1960

Dirofilariasis

Awe RJ, et al: Solitary and bilateral pulmonary nodules due to Dirofilaria immitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 112:445-449, 1975

Beskin CA, et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis as the cause of a pulmonary nodular disease. JAMA 198:665-667, 1966

Bradham RR, et al: Bilateral pulmonary nodules caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Ann Thorac Surg 50:312-313, 1990

Cordero M, et al: Transient solitary pulmonary nodule caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Eur Respir J 3:1070-1071, 1992

Dayal Y, Neafie RC: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis. A case report and review of the literature. Am Rev Respir Dis 112:437, 1975

DeCarneril J, et al: Subcutaneous dirofilariasis in man: not so rare. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 67:887-891, 1973

Dobson C, Welsh JS: Dirofilariasis as a cause of eosinophilic meningitis in man. Trans R Trop Med Hyg 68:223-226, 1974

Feld H: Dirofilaria immitis (dog heartworm) as a cause of a pulmonary lesion in man. Radiology 108:311, 1973

Fourge C, et al: Dirofilariasis of the breast mimicking carcinoma on mammography (letter). AJR 159:220, 1992

Gershwin LJ, et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis. Chest 66:92, 1974

Goodman ML, Gore I: Pulmonary infarct secondary to Dirofilaria larvae. Arch Intern Med 113:702, 1964

Harrison EG Jr, Thompson JH Jr: Dirofilariasis in the human lung. Am J Clin Pathol 43:224-228, 1965

Hawkins A, et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 29:19-22, 1985

Kahn FW, et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis and transitional cell carcinoma. Benign lung nodules mimicking metastatic malignant neoplasms. Arch Intern Med 143:1259-1260, 1983

Kelly WT, et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis diagnosed by computerized tomography scan controlled percutaneous needle aspiration. Aust NZ J Med 15:656-657, 1985

Kochar AS: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis. Report of three cases and brief review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 84:19-23, 1985

Marty AM, Andersen EM: Dirofilaria. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 930-934

Monchy D, et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis (review) (in French). Med Trop 53:366-371, 1993

Moorhouse DE, et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis in Queensland. Med J Aust 2:1230-1233, 1973

Navarrete AR: Pulmonary dirofilariasis. Chest 61:51-52, 1972

Nicholson CP, et al: Dirofilaria immitis: a rare increasing cause of pulmonary nodules. Mayo Clin Proc 67:646-650, 1992

Portnoy GL: Dirofilariasis. In: Connor DH (ed) Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton and Lange, Stamford, Conn., 1997, pp 1391-1396

Ro JY, et al: Pulmonary dirofilariasis: the great imitator of primary or metastatic lung tumor. A clinicopathologic analysis of seven cases and a review of the literature (see comments) (review). Hum Pathol 20:69-76, 1989

Samarawickrema WA, et al: Natural infections of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesia and Aedes (Finlaya) samoanus and their implication in human health in Samoa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:187-188, 1992

Smith LS, Schillaci RF: Pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans - pneumonitis that evolved to a lung nodule. West J Med 145:516-519, 1986

Tada I, et al: Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity of a man in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:988-990, 1979

Tannehill AW, Hatch HB: Coin lesions of the lung due to Dirofilaria immitis. Report of a case. Dis Chest 53:369, 1968

Tauzon RA, et al: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis manifesting as a "coin" lesion. A case report. JAMA 199:45, 1967

Elephantiasis and Podoconiosis

Alard M: Histoire de elephantiase des Arabes. Paris. Croullebois, R.S.M.M, 248 h 32 and 236128. 2nd edn. British Library 1187 h 14, 1824

Clark M: Lymphostatic verrucosis in Fort Hall district, Kenya. East Afr Med J 42:287-290, 1948

Cohen LB: Idiopathic lymphodema of Ethiopia and Kenya. East Afr Med J 37:53-74, 1960

Corachan M, et al: Podoconiosis in aequatorial Guinea. Report of two cases from different geological environments. Trop Geogr Med 40:359-364, 1988

Davey WW: Chronic lymphodema. In: Companion to Surgery in Africa. E & S Livingstone, London, 1968, pp 37-48

Freeman DO, et al: Lymphoscintigraphic analysis of lymphatic abnormalities in symptomatic and asymptomatic human filariasis. J Infect Dis 170:927-933, 1994

Freeman DO, et al: Abnormal lymphatic function in presymptomatic bancroftian filariasis. J Infect Dis 171:997-1001, 1995

Fyfe NCM, Price EW: The effects of silica on lymph nodes and vessels - a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of non-filarial endemic elephantiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79:645-651, 1985

Itakura H: Idiopathic elephantiasis. In: Doerr W, Seifert G (eds) Tropical Pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1995, pp 1328-1331

Konstam PJ, Ngu V: Chronic lymphodema in western Nigeria. Br J Surg 51:101-110, 1964

Lowenthal LJ: On the probable inclusion of several diseases in the title "mossy" foot. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 28:47-62, 1934

Mappes C, Voges EM: Lung findings in filariasis (in German). Aktuelle Radiol 4:277-278, 1994

Montangerand Y, et al: Lymphographic aspects of filarian adenopathy. J Radiol Electrol Med Nucl 50:135-142, 1969

Oomen APL: A reconsideration of the problem of elephantiasis. Trop Geogr Med 21:225-235, 1969

Paul M: The riddle of tropical elephantiasis. Br J Surg 50: 897-906, 1963

Price EW: The pathology of nonfilariasis elephantiasis of the lower leg. Trans R Soc Med Hyg 10:87-93, 1972

Price EW: A possible genetic factor in non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. Ethiop Med J 10:87-93, 1972

Price EW: Pre-elephantiasic stage of endemic nonfilarial elephantiasis of the lower legs: "podoconiosis". Trop Doct 14:115-119, 1984

Price EW Bailey D: Environmental factors in the aetiology of endemic elephantiasis of the lower legs in Tropical Africa. Trop Geogr Med 36:1-5, 1984

Price EW, Henderson WJ: The elemental content of lymphatic tissues of barefooted people in Ethiopia, with reference to endemic elephantiasis of the lower legs. Trans R Soc Med Hyg 72:132-136, 1978

Price EW, Henderson WJ: Silica and silicates in femoral lymph nodes of barefooted people in Ethiopia with special reference to elephantiasis of the lower legs. Trans R Soc Med Hyg 73:640-647, 1979

Spooner NT, Davies JE: The possible role of soil particles in the aetiology of nonfilarial (endemic) elephantiasis: a macrophage cytotoxicity assay. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80:222-225, 1986

Traveria A, et al: Silikate in den femuralen Lymphknoten eines europäischen Kindes mit Symptomen von Elephantiasis in den Beinen. Beitr elektronenmikroskop. Direktabb Oberfl 19:419-428, 1986

Back to the Table of Contents

Copyright: Palmer and Reeder